The results are in!
Some of our mystery chemicals dissolved, and this means they were able to be broken down by the water into small enough pieces that they could pass through our filter into the dish. After letting the water evaporate overnight, there was evidence that some of the chemicals did indeed get small enough to pass through the filter!
Those chemicals that remained behind in the filter were unable to be broken down by the filter and didn't dissolve.
So what does this mean? Not all chemicals that are white and powdery react to water in the same way! How cool!